Recent Publications, including International Journal of Human
Nutrition and Functional Medicine: ISSN 2378-4881
by ICHNFM and Faculty: IJHNFM publications are
currently being (re)organized by Year, Volume, Quarter, and
- Gonzalez et al. Metabolic Correction, part 1.
Puerto Rico Health Science Journal 2015 Mar
- Miranda-Massari et al. Metabolic Correction, part 2.
Puerto Rico Health Science Journal 2015 Mar
Featured IJHNFM publications
Featured IJHNFM publications
IJHNFM_2014 (v2q1p1): Assessment of the
Diagnostic Accuracy of Recently Introduced DNA Stool
Screening Test, Gingras, Duncan, Schueller, Schreckenberger
IJHNFM_2014 (v2q2p1): Chronic Diseases as Inborn Errors of Metabolism: The
Metabolic Correction Therapy Approach,
Miranda-Massari, Duconge, Arroyo
IJHNFM_2014 (v2q3p1): ISIFMC*
Position Paper on the HPS2-THRIVE Study (*International
Society of Integrative, Functional and Metabolic
Houston, Guarneri, Kahn.
IJHNFM_2014 (v2q4p1): Unifying Antiviral Strategy
$3 AmazonKindle In Spanish:
Estratègia antiviral unificación por medicos y el
publico (Espanol, PDF).
AmazonKindle Int J Hum Nutr Funct Med / Revista
Internacional de Nutricion Humana y Medicina Funcional.
Best of 2014 Compilation
- Mitochondrial Medicine
arrives to Prime Time in Clinical Care,
- Reply to
"Role of Western Diet in Inflammatory Autoimmune
Diseases" by Manzel et al in Current Allergy Asthma
Reports 2014 January, Vasquez
Publisher prohibits open-access distribution for first 12
- Funtional Inflammology:
Volume 1 (see
- Derivative work:
Inflammation Mastery: discounted black & white
printing; note that this is the
smaller grayscale version of
- Derivative work:
in Human Disease: Pathogenic and Therapeutic
Considerations in Diseases of Sustained Inflammation; note that this is a
color-printed excerpt from
- Open reply and call for rewrite/withdrawal of
Science Magazine's 2014 October article "Pot farmers are
poisoning weasel relative"
Submitted publically to
Science Magazine 2014 Oct
- Rebuttals to "Unrestricted Paleolithic Diet is
Associated with Unfavorable Changes to Blood Lipids in
Healthy Subjects" in International Journal of
Exercise Science 2014,
Vasquez A, Villalba MF, Picazo O, Névoa V.
Featured IJHNFM publications
Monograph: Initial Considerations in Patient Assessment
and Management, Vasquez
2013: Mitochondrial Dysfunction
and the emerging “Mitochondrial Medicine” and the 2013
International Conference on Human Nutrition and
Functional Medicine: Interview with Alex Vasquez D.C.,
N.D., D.O., F.A.C.N.,
Conference Presentation Slides from Dr Alex Vasquez,
- Misadventures and Pitfalls in Chiropractic Academics,
- Polycystic Ovarian
Syndrome: Hormones, Mitochondria & Polymorphism, Champion,
of Editors and Reviewers:
All articles must undergo peer-review and receive approval
from at least 3 Editors/Reviewers and are also subject to
public posting and review during the peer-review process to
increase "openness" of the review process. Any major dissenting views may
be published along with the publication. Publication does
not imply endorsement by all members of IJHNFM
Editorial Review Board.
Dr Alex Vasquez (USA,
Dr Sergio Abanades (Spain)
Dr Jeffrey A. Ruterbusch (USA)
Kenneth Cintron (USA & Puerto Rico)
Dr Michael Gonzalez
Dr Deanna Minich
Dr Ismael Samudio
(Colombia & Canada)
Dr Annette D'Armata
Dr Steve Hickey (United Kingdom)
Dr Jorge R Miranda-Massari (Puerto Rico)
Dr Dorothy D. Zeviar (USA)
Dr Jill Carnahan (USA)
Dr Bruce Milliman, guest
reviewer 2014 (USA)
Dr Terri Ward (USA)
Dr Ryan Bradley (USA)
Dr Tariq Shafi (USA and Pakistan
Dr Joseph Iaccino (USA)
Maelan Fontes (Spain)
Terri Ward (USA)
Sayer Ji (USA)
Julie Jean (USA)
Thomas Easley (USA)
Mathieu Bouchard (Canada)
Alex Vasquez DC ND DO FACN,
Chief Director and Editor
Biographical sketch: Dr Vasquez graduated from
University of Western States (Doctor of Chiropractic),
Bastyr University (Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine), and
University of North Texas Health Science Center (Doctor
of Osteopathic Medicine) and has written approximately
100 articles, numerous audios and videos, and more than10 books.
Dr Vasquez completed a PreDoctoral Research Fellowship
funded by the US National Institutes of Health, National
Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and
has received numerous awards for teaching and leadership
in functional/nutritional medicine.
Integrative Orthopedics (2005, 2007, 2012),
Integrative Rheumatology (2007), Musculoskeletal
Pain—Expanded Clinical Strategies (continuing medical
education [CME] peer-reviewed monograph published by the
Institute for Functional Medicine in 2008), Integrative
Medicine and Functional Medicine for Hypertension
(2011), Integrative Chiropractic Management of High
Blood Pressure and Chronic Hypertension (2010, 2011),
Integrative Orthopedics Third Edition (2012),
Headaches, Hypothyroidism, and Fibromyalgia (2012),
Chiropractic and Naturopathic Mastery of Clinical
Disorders (2009), Functional Immunology and Nutritional Immunomodulation (2012),
Fibromyalgia in a Nutshell
Rheumatology, Nutritional Immunomodulation, and
Functional Inflammology (2013). Complete list
More than 100
articles and letters:
JAMA—Journal of the
American Medical Association, BMJ—British Medical
Journal, The Lancet.com, JAOA—Journal of the American
Osteopathic Association, Annals of Pharmacotherapy,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,
Nutritional Perspectives, Journal of Manipulative and
Physiological Therapeutics, The Original Internist,
Integrative Medicine, Holistic Primary Care, Nutritional
Wellness, Dynamic Chiropractic, Evidence-based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the
American College of Rheumatology.
Previous Editorial and
Dr Vasquez lectures to doctors and healthcare
professionals internationally and has taught
Pharmacology at University of Western States; he
practices in Oregon as a naturopathic physician. Dr
Vasquez worked with the Institute for Functional
Medicine from 2003-2013, first as Forum Consultant, then as
Faculty for the AFMCP (Applying Functional Medicine in
Clinical Practice) course; Dr Vasquez formerly taught the Advance Practice Module (APM) "The Many
Faces of Immune Dysregulation and Chronic Inflammation:
Chronic Infections, Atopy, and Autoimmune Disorders" and
now teaches for various groups, especially ICHNFM.
English, Spanish (improving), Catalan (pending)
"I choose Editors and Reviewers based on their
1) expertise and experience, 2) quality and depth of
reviews, 3) obstinancy, and 4) honesty and courage to
present and protect the truth. I don't look for agreement--I
look for the truth first, upon which I hope we will agree."
Abanades MS MD PhD,
A. Ruterbusch CDR, MC, (FS,HMO), USN(Ret.), DO, MPH, MSA,
MS, MS, FAAIM, DACBN,CSCS,CNS,CISSN,Dip.S.N.
sketch: Dr. Jeffrey
A. Ruterbusch is a retired United States Naval Physician
who specializes in "Sports and Exercise Preventive
Medicine". Prior to attending medical school, Dr.
Ruterbusch was a Naval Aerospace Physiologist where he
was an exercise physiologist specializing in exercise
science as it pertained to increasing pilots and
aircrewman tolerance to G-induced loss-of-consciousness
in tactical jet aircraft. He attended medical school on
the United States Health Professions Scholarship Program
and then did his Internal Medicine internship at the
National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.
After serving several operational medicine tours with
the United States Marine Corps in Okinawa, Japan and the
United States Navy as a Naval Flight Surgeon in
Pensacola and Jacksonville, Florida, he attended the
University of California, San Diego and San Diego State
University where he was the Chief Resident in the SEPM
program. The last twelve years of his naval career were
spent as a sports medicine physician where he practiced
primarily physical medicine and rehabilitation. it was
during his years as a sports medicine physician that he
developed his passion for sports nutrition and
orthomolecular/functional medicine. Since his retirement
from the military over three years ago he has pursued
other post-graduate certifications/credentials in sports
and general nutrition, age-management medicine, and
physiological regulating medicine. He has acquired
Associate Professor status at Central Michigan
University, College of Graduate Studies, where he has
taught graduate courses in health-services
administration. He has also served on a number of
special advisory boards for sports supplement companies,
strength and fitness associations, and has edited
nutrition books for McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. He
is a certified functional medicine practitioner, a
certified nutrition specialist, and a Diplomate of the
American Clinical Board of Nutrition. He has been the
Chief Medical Officer at the Clover Medical Center in Al
Jabrya, Kuwait in charge of Sports Medicine and
Rehabilitation, and Metabolic/Nutritional Medicine. Over
the past two years he has been the Medical Director of
two Rehabilitation and Wellness Clinics in Jacksonville,
and Tallahassee, Florida..
Kenneth Cintron MD
sketch: Dr. Cintron
is an active Fellow of the American Academy of
Orthopedic Surgeons. He graduated from the University of
Puerto Rico School of Medicine in 1990 and completed his
training in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency in 1995. He
fulfilled a Foot and Ankle Surgery Fellowship at Emory
University in Atlanta, Georgia in 1996. Dr. Cintron is
Board Certified in Anti-Aging, Preventative,
Regenerative and Functional Medicine and an Advanced
Fellow of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine.
As a former owner an operator of BodylogicMD of Puerto
Rico he dedicated his practice to
helping women and men overcome health challenges
associated with aging, using bioidentical hormone
replacement therapy (BHRT) integrated with customized
nutrition and fitness programs. He is author and
co-author of several published articles related to both
Orthopaedic Surgery and Integrative Medicine. During his
career he has worked as Team Physician of professional
basketball, baseball and volleyball teams as well as in
Central American and Panamerican Games and 1996
Olympics. He is past President of the Puerto Rico
Orthopaedic State Society and former member of the Board
Of Councilors of the American Academy of Orthopaedic
Michael J. Gonzalez MS MHSN DSc PhD FACN
Biographical sketch: Dr. Michael J. Gonzalez is
Professor at the Nutrition Program, School of Public
Health in the Medical Sciences Campus, University of
Puerto Rico. He earned a Bachelor Degree in Biology and
Chemistry (Catholic University), a Masters in Cellular
Biology and Biophysics (Nova University), and another
Masters in Nutrition and Public Health (University of
P.R.). He has a Doctorate in Nutritional Medicine (John
F. Kennedy University). He also has a Doctorate in
Health Sciences (Lafayette University), and another
Doctorate in Nutritional Biochemistry and Cancer Biology
(Michigan State University). He completed a
Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Geriatrics at the School of
Medicine, University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Gonzalez is a
Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and has
authored over 150 scientific publications. He has serve
as a member on several scientific journal Editorial
Boards, such as Biomedicina, the Journal of
Orthomolecular Medicine, and Alternative Medicine
Reviews. As a consultant for several companies, he has
been responsible for designing formulations of
nutritional supplements and pharmaceutical products. He
has been a consultant for The Center for the Improvement
of Human Functioning (now Riordan Clinic), in Wichita,
Kansas. He has obtained several research awards for his
work on Nutrition and Cancer. He is currently Co-
Director of RECNAC II project, and Research Director of
the InBioMed Project Initiative. Dr. Gonzalez also
serves as a nutrition consultant to the Puerto Rican
Basketball National Team and is part of the Medical
Commission of the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation.
Doctor González and Dr. Jorge Miranda-Massari, founders
of InBioMed, are leaders in the development of non-toxic
chemotherapy treatments for cancer. The findings of
their work with Intravenous Vitamin C as an anti-cancer
agent, published in 2002, were confirmed by the NIH in
2005. They published the first Phase-I clinical study
utilizing Intravenous Vitamin C for treatment of
terminal cancer patients in 2005, and also published in
2005 the most comprehensive review on Vitamin C and
Cancer, as a follow-up on the work of two times Nobel
Laureate, Dr. Linus C. Pauling. They have brought many
new concepts into the field, such as the Bioenergetic
theory of carcinogenesis, the systemic saturation
phenomenon of intravenous vitamin C, the metabolic
correction concept for disease treatment and prevention.
in 2015, Dr Gonzalez was appointed to the North American
Dietary Supplements Advisory Board.
Gonzalez, Miranda-Massari, Saul’s. I Have Cancer
What Should I Do: The Orthomolecular Guide to Cancer
Management provides evidence-based
recommendations for an integrative approach for those
dealing with cancer and seeking to improve quality of
life and survival.
MJ, et al. The bio-energetic theory
of carcinogenesis. Med Hypotheses. 2012 Oct;79(4):433-9
The altered energy metabolism of tumor cells provides a
viable target for a non toxic chemotherapeutic approach.
An increased glucose consumption rate has been observed
in malignant cells. Warburg (Nobel Laureate in medicine)
postulated that the respiratory process of malignant
cells was impaired and that the transformation of a
normal cell to malignant was due to defects in the
aerobic respiratory pathways. Szent-Györgyi (Nobel
Laureate in medicine) also viewed cancer as originating
from insufficient availability of oxygen. Oxygen by
itself has an inhibitory action on malignant cell
proliferation by interfering with anaerobic respiration
(fermentation and lactic acid production).
Interestingly, during cell differentiation (where cell
energy level is high) there is an increased cellular
production of oxidants that appear to provide one type
of physiological stimulation for changes in gene
expression that may lead to a terminal differentiated
state. The failure to maintain high ATP production (high
cell energy levels) may be a consequence of inactivation
of key enzymes, especially those related to the Krebs
cycle and the electron transport system. A distorted
mitochondrial function (transmembrane potential) may
result. This aspect could be suggestive of an important
mitochondrial involvement in the carcinogenic process in
addition to presenting it as a possible therapeutic
target for cancer. Intermediate metabolic correction of
the mitochondria is postulated as a possible non-toxic
therapeutic approach for cancer.
PhD FACN CNS
sketch: Dr. Minich has a unique approach to clinical
medicine based in a combination of physiology and
psychology. She has trained in functional medicine for
the past decade with the “father of functional
medicine,” Dr. Jeffrey Bland, as her mentor, and has
served on the Nutrition Advisory Board for the Institute
of Functional Medicine. Her academic background is in
nutritional science, including a Master’s Degree in
Human Nutrition and Dietetics from the University of
Illinois at Chicago (1995), and a Ph.D. in Medical
Sciences (Nutrition) from the University of Groningen in
The Netherlands (1999). In conjunction with her academic
degrees and extensive teaching experience at the
university level, she is both a Fellow (F.A.C.N.) and a
Certified Nutrition Specialist (C.N.S.) through the
American College of Nutrition and has received education
in functional medicine through the Institute of
Functional Medicine. Dr. Minich has over ten years of
experience working in both the food and dietary
supplement industries with her last position as Vice
President of Scientific Affairs at Metagenics, Inc., in
which she was responsible for global product launches in
addition to serving as a teaching clinician for
international audiences of healthcare practitioners. She
currently leads educational outreach as Vice President
of Education at the Personalized Lifestyle Medicine
Institute, which involves coordination of cutting-edge
information and collaboration with opinion leaders in
the personalized lifestyle medicine field, along with
her role as adjunct faculty at the University of Western
States, Bastyr University, Institute for Functional
Medicine, and the Maryland University of Integrative
Health. She is the author of five books on nutrition,
wellness, and psychology, and is passionate in helping
others to live well using therapeutic lifestyle changes.
Essential Fatty Acid Absorption and Metabolism (1999);
Chakra Foods for Optimum Health: A Guide to the Foods
that can Improve Your Energy, Inspire Creative Changes,
Open Your Heart, and Heal Body, Mind, and Spirit (Conari
Press, 2009); An A-Z Guide to Food Additives (Conari
Press, 2009); Quantum Supplements: A Total Health and
Wellness Makeover with Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs (Conari
Press, 2010); The Complete Handbook of Quantum Healing:
An A-Z Self-Healing Guide for Over 100 Common Ailments (Conari
More than 20
Journal of Lipid Research; American Journal of
Clinical Research; Nutrition Reviews; Journal of
Clinical Lipidology; Biochimica Biophysica Acta;
Gastroenterology; American Journal of Physiology -
Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology; Pediatric
Research; Canadian Journal
of Physiology and Pharmacology; Metabolic Syndrome
and Related Disorders; Journal of Bone and Mineral
Metabolism; Journal of Medicinal Food.
Ryan Bradley ND
Dr. Ryan Bradley is a practicing naturopathic
doctor, clinical researcher and cardiovascular
epidemiologist. He is currently an Associate Professor
at the National College of Natural Medicine in Portland,
OR and an Affiliate Associate Professor in the
Department of Pharmaceutics in the School of Pharmacy at
the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. He also
practices at Guarneri Integrative Health in La Jolla,
CA, where he specializes in integrative approaches to
treating type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and
cardiovascular disease. Prior to entering private
practice, he served as Core Clinical Faculty, Research
Faculty and the Director of the Bastyr Center for
Diabetes & Cardiovascular Wellness from 2005-13. Dr.
Bradley has published his research in leading
peer-reviewed medical journals including:
Atherosclerosis, the Canadian Medical
Association Journal (CMAJ) and Diabetes Care.
He is a frequently invited speaker for naturopathic and
integrative medicine organizations and he has presented
on the benefits of integrative care for diabetes and
heart disease at American Diabetes Association, the
European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the
International Diabetes Federation. In addition to
research publications, Dr. Bradley co-authored the
Food User Manual, a
patient guide to heart-healthy diet choices. He
currently serves on the Diabetes Advisory Board for
Dr. Carnahan completed her
residency at the University of Illinois Program in
Family Medicine at Methodist Medical Center. In 2006 she
was voted by faculty to receive the Resident Teacher of
the Year award and elected to Central Illinois 40
Leaders Under 40. She received her medical degree from
Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine in Chicago
and her Bachelor of Science degree in Bio-Engineering at
the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana. She is
dually board-certified in Family Medicine (ABFM) and
Integrative Holistic Medicine (ABIHM). She was also part
of the first 100 health-care practitioners to be
certified in Functional Medicine through the Institute
of Functional Medicine (IFMCP). In 2008, Dr. Carnahan’s
vision for health and healing resulted in the creation
of Methodist Center for Integrative Medicine in Peoria,
IL where she served as the Medical Director for 2 years.
In 2010, she founded Flatiron Functional Medicine in
Boulder, Colorado where she practices functional
medicine with medical partner, Dr. Robert Rountree. Dr.
Carnahan is also 13-year survivor of breast cancer and
Crohn’s disease and passionate about teaching patients
how to “live well” and thrive in the midst of complex
and chronic illness. She is also committed to teaching
other physicians how to address underlying cause of
illness rather than just treating symptoms through the
principles of functional medicine. She is a prolific
writer, speaker, and loves to infuse others with her
passion for health and healing!
H Haase MD
sketch: Dr. Haase graduated from Calvin College (BS
Biology), Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (MD)
subsequently training and practicing at the Mayo Clinic
becoming board certified in both Family and Integrative
Holistic Medicine. He is the founder of the MaxWell
Clinic for Proactive Medicine, CMO of the LifeStrive
Group and CMO of Evoke Neuroscience. He holds
certifications in Health Coaching, Nutrition, and
Neurofeedback. Dr. Haase is faculty for the University
of South Florida Medical School’s Master’s program in
Nutritional and Metabolic Medicine and for Western
States University’s Master’s program for Functional and
Nutritional Medicine with the area of emphasis for each
being Functional Neurophysiology. He is a reviewer for
the Textbook of Functional Medicine and a reviewer for
Alternative Medicine Reviews. Dr. Haase is a co-founder
of the non-profit "TheFoodInitiative.org" where
high-school youth learn to live health-response-able and
world-response-able lives via a curriculum of
small-group learning, organic gardening, and community
Steve Hickey PhD
Dr Steve Hickey holds a
PhD in Medical Biophysics from the University of
Manchester, England; he is a Chartered Biologist and a
Member of the Society of Biology and has a degree in
science from the Open University. His PhD was on the
development, aging, function and failure of the
intervertebral disk with Professor DWL Hukins. His first
year of research was acknowledged by the Volvo Award by
the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar
Spine. Following his PhD, he worked on the function of
the urethra and invented the conformable catheter with
Professor John Broklehurst. With Professor Ian Isherwood
he carried out research in super-resolution CT scanning
and quantitative imaging on the first clinical MR
scanner in Europe. During this period he gained the
Annual Award and Medal of the Back Pain Society.
Switching to Artificial Intelligence he did research
with Professor Enid Mumford on stock market prediction.
His later research included pattern recognition,
computer science, and decision science. He
has published hundreds of scientific articles in a
variety of disciplines. Dr Hickey is the
author of books on science, health, vitamins, and cancer
many co-authored with Dr Hilary Roberts including
Tarnished Gold: The Sickness
of Evidence Based Medicine,
The Vitamin Cure for Heart
The Science of Vitamin C,
Cancer Nutrition and
Survival, and The
Cancer Breakthrough. He worked with Dr Robert F.
Cathcart 3rd on the dynamic flow of vitamin C. Hickey’s
other books include Vitamin
C: The Real Story (with Andrew Saul), Hospitals
and Health (with Abram Hoffer and Andrew Saul), and
The Vitamin Cure for
R Miranda-Massari DrPh
at the School of Pharmacy in the Medical Sciences
Campus, University of Puerto Rico, and a Registered
Pharmacist. He earned two bachelor degrees at the
University of Puerto Rico, one in Science and another in
Pharmacy. After earning a Doctorate Degree in Pharmacy
at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, he
completed a Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Clinical
Pharmacokinetics at the University of North Carolina. He
obtained Post-Doctoral training in Pharmaceutical Care
in Nephrology from the University of Pittsburgh, and
another one in Clinical Anti-Coagulation from the
Medical College of Virginia. Author of numerous
scientific publications including editorials, reviews
and research data in peer review journals, Dr.
Miranda-Massari is a consultant for the prestigious
Center for the Improvement for the Human Functioning, in
Welcome aboard, Dr
Miranda-Massari: biography update in progress!
Annette J. D'Armata NMD
sketch: Dr. D'Armata earned a B.A. in Communication
from the University of St. Thomas, studied graduate
Sociology at the University of Houston, and earned a
Doctorate of Naturopathic Medicine with honors from
Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine & Health
Sciences. While at SCNM, she obtained additional
clinical training in the integrative treatment of mental
illness under Katherine Raymer, MD, ND, was asked to
teach neuroanatomy as assistant to Thomas Richards, PhD,
and was honored with an Outstanding Leadership award by
her faculty and colleagues. Fluent in Spanish, Dr.
D'Armata volunteered to intern with Adelfo Yescas, M.D.
(Internal Medicine), on rotation at Hospital San Martin
in Oaxaca and at General Regional Hospital No. 25 in
Mexico City, working with patients with rheumatoid
arthritis, diabetes, infectious disease and advanced
cancers. She was offered a post-doctoral residency in
naturopathic internal medicine in Fairbanks, Alaska and,
upon completion, went on to open and run a successful,
multi-practitioner clinic serving that community for
three years. She is the author of "Dr. D'Armata's Top
Ten Tips for Immediately Improving Your Health," a
practical health primer for adults. Dr. D'Armata has
been a frequent guest lecturer on radio, in health
facilities and in the community, presenting:
"Integrative Approaches to Autoimmune Conditions,"
"Inflammatory Breast Cancer: An Integrative Case
Report," "Clinically Effective Natural Treatment of
Infectious Diseases," "Neuropsychiatric Effects of
Gluten Sensitivity," "Naturopathic Care of Older
Adults," "Integrative First Aid" and "Natural Treatment
of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Additionally, she has
provided medical review and editing for various texts by
Dr. Alex Vasquez. Dr. D'Armata is in private practice in
Tempe, Arizona, specializing in psychoneuroimmunology.
She has proposed original research on obsessive
compulsive disorder using Quantitative EEG and Low
Resolution Brain Tomography (LORETA). Dr. D'Armata is an
active member of the American Association of
Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) and the Oncology
Association of Naturopathic Physicians. (OncANP).
Ismael Samudio PhD
sketch: After several years of research at the
world-famous MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston Texas,
Dr Samudio is currently Associate Professor Department
of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Sciences,
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana – Bogotá, Colombia.
Attending the same high school in Georgia with Dr
Vasquez, Dr Samudio graduated in 1991 from Riverside
Military Academy, then earned his B.S. in Biochemistry
and Genetics – Texas A&M University and his Ph.D. in
Genetics – Texas A&M University. He is trained in
biochemistry, molecular genetics, cytometry, microscopy,
immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, mammalian tissue
culture, and organic chemistry. Isolation, culture and
characterization of adult stem cells. His main interests
include: Apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and
gene regulation. Metabolic alterations in cancer cells
and cancer initiating (stem, progenitor) cells, and how
these alterations contribute to disease recurrence and
progression. Development/identification of chemical
sstructures as novel chemotherapeutic agents.
Development of in vitro systems that mimic the bone
marrow microenvironment. Physiology of the normal and
leukemic bone marrow. Cellular therapy and regenerative
medicine. Adult Stem cells.
Tim Jackson DPT CNS
sketch: Dr. Tim
Jackson received his undergraduate degree in Health
science and chemistry from Wake Forest University in
2003. He completed his Doctorate in Physical Therapy
(DPT) from the Medical University of SC in 2009. He is
certified in the Spine portion of Active Release
Technique. Realizing that manual therapy and orthopedic
care helped only some of his patients, he began studying
functional and environmental medicine, as well as
digestive health, in an effort to help others achieve
wellness. He is working to complete his Certified
Nutritional Specialist(CNS) Certification. Tim
incorporates many areas of health into his work,
especially epigenetics, functional endocrinology, and
biotoxin-related illnesses. .
Tariq Shafi MD
sketch: A medical doctor in integrative practice for
many years, Dr Shafi has administered tens of thousands
of patient encounters and therapeutic interventions
ranging from diet advice to intravenous nutrient
therapy. Dr Shafi and Dr Vasquez worked together in the
same health center for 6 years. Dr Shafi also speaks
four languages (English, Spanish, Urdu, Punjabi) and has helped with the international
translation of Dr Vasquez's books.
Spanish, Urdu, Punjabi
Joseph Iaccino DC (MSc candidate)
Dorothy D. Zeviar EdD LAc MPH
CPH (MSc candidate)
quality-of-life, and help reduce the financial,
physiologic and emotional burdens of health, safety and
aboard, Dr Z: biography update in progress!
Pedro Carrera Bastos MA MS
(PhD candidate in Medical
Sciences at Lund University, Sweden)
sketch: Pedro Bastos is a Portuguese Nutrition
researcher and PhD candidate in Medical Sciences, holding an MSc in Human Nutrition and three Post-graduate Diplomas
(Clinical Nutrition; Functional Nutrition and
Orthomolecular Medicine; Health & Exercise Science). He
lectures extensively to health professionals on topics
related to Nutrition across Europe, USA and Latin
America and has authored and co-authored 12 scientific
papers. Best known for being an expert in milk and
milk-associated immune dysfunction and allergy.
Maelan Fontes MS
(PhD candidate in Medical Sciences at Lund University,
sketch: Physical Therapist, Master in Science in
Human Nutrition and Food Quality, PhD scandidate in
Medical Sciences, Researcher at the Center for Primary Health
Care Research, Lund University, Sweden. Lecturer in several postgraduate courses in Spain and
Portugal, Author of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary
nutrition. Focused on Food and Western Disease from an
Oscar Picazo MSc (PhD
candidate in Human Nutrition at the Universidad Complutense
Oscar Picazo obtained an
MSc in Chemistry at the Universidad de Alcala (Spain),a
Certi-ficate in Chemistry at the University of Sussex at
Brighton (UK), an MSc in Computatio-nal Chemistry
(Universidad Autonoma de Madrid), and MSc in
Occupational Health (Uni-versidad de Valladolid). After
several year of research experience in organic
chemistry, nanotechnology and medicinal chemistry, and
working as an occupational health consul-tant, he become
interested in nutrition and biochemistry. He is now PhD
candidate in Human Nutrition at the Universidad
Complutense de Madrid, and taking the degree to become
certified nutritionist. He has published several papers
in peer reviewed journals and lectures in postgraduates
courses in nutrition. Topics of interest are the
nutrition-autoimmune disease link, gut flora and
endotoxemia, and the evolutionary approach to nutrition.
Terri Ward CPA (MS
Terri Ward is a certified Nutritional Therapy
Practitioner, Certified Public Accountant and student in
the Masters of Science in Human Nutrition and Functional
Medicine program at the University of Western States.
Terri has an excellent eye for detail and is a very
Sayer Ji BA
Sayer Ji is a widely recognized researcher, author, and
presenter, Steering Committee Member of the Global GMO
Free Coalition (GGFC), an advisory board member of the
National Health Federation, and Fearless Parent, and the
founder of the world's most widely referenced,
evidence-based natural health resource of its kind. He
founded Greenmedinfo.com in 2008 in order to provide the
world an open access, evidence-based resource supporting
natural and integrative modalities. Sayer's work has
been published in various online and print publications,
including Truthout, The Wellbeing Journal, Pathways
Connect, Mercola.com, The Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.
Sayer attended Rutgers University, where he studied
under the American philosopher Dr. Bruce W. Wilshire,
with a focus on the philosophy of science, receiving a
BA degree in Philosophy in 1995. In 1996, following
residency at the Zen Mountain Monastery in upstate New
York, he embarked on a 5 year journey of service as a
counselor-teacher and wilderness therapy specialist for
various organizations serving underprivileged and/or
adjudicated populations, from the Princeton-Blairstown
Center (NJ), the Mayhew Foundation (NH) and Eckerd Youth
Alternatives (FL). Since 2003, Sayer has served as a
patient advocate and an educator and consultant for the
natural products industry and health and wellness field.
Julie Jean BS BSN RN
nursing background is in functional medicine, ER,
post-anesthesia care, wound care, and cardiac stepdown.
She is studying the application of botanicals in
functional medicine and has a keen interest in helping
to make FM accessible to the wider population. Julie has
bachelor degrees in Nursing and Geology from Michigan
State University. She is working on attaining her Master
of Science in Nursing degree from the family nurse
practitioner track at Texas Tech University Health
Thomas Easley, Registered
Herbalist (American Herbalist Guild)
Thomas Easley is a Registered
Herbalist with the American Herbalist Guild, author and
teacher. Thomas integrates modern science and
Traditional Western Herbalism into a unified and
systematic approach to health and healing. He utilizes
herbs from all over the world, including Ayuveda and
Traditional Chinese Medicine, but focuses on the deep
and rich tradition of Western Herbalism. Thomas
emphasizes using foods as primary medicine and uses
intensive diets as well as stress reduction techniques,
nutritional supplements, and exercise to help people
achieve their health goals. Thomas believes that herbal
medicine has the potential to change the world.
Unfortunately, much of what is taught about herbs and
nutritional supplements is driven by marketing and is
not based in tradition or science. Thomas’s approach
draws on his extensive clinical experience, which spans
14 years of full-time practice and over 10,000 clients.
independent researcher and traditional naturopath practicing in
starting his adventure in the fitness industry, Mr.
Bouchard is now working at is own Naturopathic Clinic in
Montréal, Québec. He is also the founder of Institut
AAT, a continuing education institute to help trainers,
naturopaths or any health related profession in having a
better understanding of the holistic approach. His
journey in functional medicine started in 2013 and the
creation of his first seminar on how to understand and
address "adrenal fatigue". Seeing that the body has a
lot of mixed patterns, he then registered at the
Functional Medicine University to start his education in
the functional approach of medicine. Now more familiar
with the medical part of the holistic approach, Mr.
Bouchard works with his colleagues at improving natural
healthcare. Mathieu helps IJHNFM with the French
translations of our publications.
Our Journals and publication platforms: International College of Human Nutrition of Functional Medicine
(ICHNFM.org, facebook.com/ICHNFM [main]) holds several different
publication platforms; this document will describe the various
journal platforms held by ICHNFM.org. We have journals formatted and
delivered either in paper print and/or as digital publications.
- Submitted articles: Submissions to the journal imply permission to edit, publish, and
- Board of Reviewers:
Acknowledgement here does not imply that the reviewer fully
agrees with or endorses the material in this text but rather
that they were willing to review specific sections of the book
for clinical applicability and clarity and to make suggestions
to their own level of satisfaction. Credit for improvements and
refinements to this text are due in part to these reviewers;
responsibility for oversights remains that of the author(s) and
International Journal of Human Nutrition Functional
Medicine ® © is the college's flagship journal,
established/copyrighted/trademarked in 2013 and globally launched
in2014 with three issues followed by consistent periodic publishing
thereafter. This journal is printed and distributed by major
publisher, therefore it's glossy, contains limited advertising on an
exclusive basis. Indexed on Medline may be pursued, but more
important than this is the Journal's internal quality;
Medline indexing is increasingly irrelevant in a world of
international immediate access via open-assess web-based platforms.
In sum, this is the journal for our best publications. Given that
English is the official language of scientific discipline, English
articles are preferred but certainly not on an exclusive basis; when
articles are submitted in other languages, we will try to provide an
abstract or complete translation in English. Topics in this
journal can focus on anything from case reports, to hypotheses, to
detailed exegesis on various topics relevant to human attrition and
the clinical practice of functional medicine. A strong preference
for preferred articles includes their description of molecular
mechanisms of disease and clinical applications of applicable
therapeutics. Better articles will also contain a blend of
philosophy and social perspective along with the science.
European Journal of Human
Nutrition and Functional Medicine © publishes articles
and virtually any language, with topical preferences specific to the
region of Europe, the UK Africa and Eurasia/Asia. Any articles
published in a language other than English will be accompanied by
either an abstract and English or a complete translation of the
North American Journal of Human
Nutrition and Functional Medicine © contains articles
written in the English language with topics particularly relevant to
– of course – North America, including United States, Canada, Mexico
and other neighboring territories and countries. USA-specific
examples from recent news:
bankrupties vs personal finances: "the average $166,750
medical school debt takes 30 years to repay at 7.5 percent
interest: a total cost of $419,738."
Genetically modified foods: The U.S. Department of
Agriculture estimates 70 percent of the products sold in
American supermarkets contain genetically modified ingredients.
The Food and Drug Administration regulates genetically modified
foods, but regulators have left testing to the industry that is
politics and controversies: "Influenza and pneumonia”
took 62,034 lives in 2001–61,777 of which were attributable to
pneumonia and 257 to flu, and in **only 18 cases was the flu
virus positively identified.** In other words, the influenza
virus was actually present in only 18 of 62,034 deaths
attributed to both influenza and pneumonia. Doshi research
published more recently in the BMJ found that in the hundreds of
thousands of respiratory samples taken each year from flu
patients in the United States and tested in labs, only 16
percent test positive for the influenza virus. It turns out that
most flu cases are actually caused by bacteria or fungus or any
of a number of other things except the influenza virus being
blamed. "But perhaps the cleverest aspect of the influenza
marketing strategy surrounds the claim that “flu” and
“influenza” are the same. The distinction seems subtle, and
purely semantic. But general lack of awareness of the difference
might be the primary reason few people realize that even the
ideal influenza vaccine, matched perfectly to circulating
strains of wild influenza and capable of stopping all influenza
viruses, can only deal with a small part of the “flu” problem
because most “flu” appears to have nothing to do with influenza.
Every year, hundreds of thousands of respiratory specimens are
tested across the US. Of those tested, on average 16% are found
to be influenza positive."
Essay by Russel Blaylock MD (neurology): The Internet is
littered with stories of “chemtrails” and geoengineering to
combat “global warming” and until recently I took these stories
with a grain of salt. One of the main reasons for my skepticism
was that I rarely saw what they were describing in the skies.
But over the past several years I have notice a great number of
these trails and I have to admit they are not like the contrails
I grew up seeing in the skies. They are extensive, quite broad,
are laid in a definite pattern and slowly evolve into artificial
clouds. Of particular concern is that there are now so many
dozens every day are littering the skies. My major concern is
that there is evidence that they are spraying tons of nanosized
aluminum compounds. It has been demonstrated in the scientific
and medical literature that nanosized particles are infinitely
more reactive and induce intense inflammation in a number of
tissues. Of special concern is the effect of these nanoparticles
on the brain and spinal cord, as a growing list of
neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s dementia,
Parkinson’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS) are strongly
related to exposure to environmental aluminum. Nanoparticles of
aluminum are not only infinitely more inflammatory, they also
easily penetrate the brain by a number of routes, including the
blood and olfactory nerves (the smell nerves in the nose).
Studies have shown that these particles pass along the olfactory
neural tracts, which connect directly to the area of the brain
that is not only most effected by Alzheimer’s disease, but also
the earliest affected in the course of the disease. It also has
the highest level of brain aluminum in Alzheimer’s cases. The
intranasal route of exposure makes spraying of massive amounts
of nanoaluminum into the skies especially hazardous, as it will
be inhaled by people of all ages, including babies and small
children for many hours.
bankruptcy: "Bankruptcies resulting from unpaid medical
bills will affect nearly 2 million people this year—making
health care the No. 1 cause of such filings, and outpacing
bankruptcies due to credit-card bills or unpaid mortgages,
according to new data. And even having health insurance doesn't
buffer consumers against financial hardship."
- Digital distribution, free
View/purchase sample (first edition)
Quick Guide to Citation
Formatting modified slightly from
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication
of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References
Committee of Medical Journal Editors offers
guidance to authors in its publication Recommendations
for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly
Work in Medical Journals (ICMJE Recommendations), which was
formerly the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. The recommended
style for references is based on the National Information Standards
Bibliographic References as adapted by the National Library of
Medicine for its databases. Details are in Citing
Medicine. (Note Appendix
F which covers how
citations in MEDLINE/PubMed differ from the advice in Citing
Medicine.) Sample references typically used by authors of
journal articles are provided below.
Articles in Journals (see
also #36. Journal
article on the Internet)
List the first six authors
followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.)
JournalInItalics year month COLON volume SEMICOLON pages
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients.
N Engl J Med.
2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7
As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout
a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number
may be omitted.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in
HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
More than six authors:
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et
al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations
after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the
12 May 2009]
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in
HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
PubMed PMID: 12140307.
Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal
atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009
Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed PMID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID:
Optional addition of a clinical trial registration number: [Added
12 May 2009]
Trachtenberg F, Maserejian NN, Soncini JA, Hayes C, Tavares M. Does
fluoride in compomers prevent future caries in children? J Dent Res.
2009 Mar;88(3):276-9. PubMed PMID: 19329464. ClinicalTrials.gov
registration number: NCT00065988.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin,
and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance.
personal authors and organization as author (List
all as they appear in the byline.) [Edited
12 May 2009]
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One
Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from
lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.
Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program,
Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of
multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ.
not in English [Edited
12 May 2009]
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og
jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.
Optional translation of article title (MEDLINE/PubMed practice):
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students
and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7.
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of
frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine
and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice.
Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an
epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC.
Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv
Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
with no volume
Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section
analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop.
volume or issue
Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA
Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.
in roman numerals
Chadwick R, Schuklenk U. The politics of ethical consensus finding.
of article indicated as needed
Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of
long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.
Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE.
Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients
[abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.
Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly
escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry.
2002;63(2):169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin
Article containing a partial retraction: [Added
12 May 2009]
Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR.
Voiding dysfunction after removal of eroded slings. J Urol. 2006
Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749. Partial retraction of: Starkman JS, Wolter C,
Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006
Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly
escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry.
2000;61(12):909-11. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J
Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169.
Article partially retracted: [Added
12 May 2009]
Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR.
Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid
urethral slings. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4. Partial retraction
in: Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR.
J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749.
republished with corrections
Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type
ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and
republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183(1-2):123-6.
with published erratum
Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2
diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther.
2000;22(10):1151-68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther.
published electronically ahead of the print version
Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk
sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31.
Epub 2002 Jul 5.
Books and Other Monographs:
Authors. Title. City COLON publisher SEMICOLON year COMMA pages
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS,
Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative
obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent
pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of
Dimes Education Services; 2001.
as author [Edited
12 May 2009]
Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the
practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.
American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on
Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan
for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.
National Lawyer's Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights
Advocates (US). AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide.
2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.
in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human
solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic
basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V.
Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15;
Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational
effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E,
Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming.
EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic
Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer;
2002. p. 182-91.
or technical report
Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:
Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration
signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of
Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb.
Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049.
Issued by performing agency:
Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring
the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA):
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy
Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract
No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of
Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central
Michigan University; 2002.
Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible
endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool
assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
Other Published Material
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop
in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col.
Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism
[videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9,
115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).
Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).
Code of Federal Regulations:
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect.
Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Update on the Science, Benefits and
Cost: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Environment, Technology and
Standards of the House Comm. on Science, 107th Cong., 1st Sess.
(Oct. 4, 2001).
Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots
[map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.
and similar references
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia:
W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.
press or Forthcoming [Edited
12 May 2009]
(Note: NLM prefers "Forthcoming" rather than "In press" because not
all items will be printed.)
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of
balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology
[CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
article on the Internet [Edited
12 May 2009]
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA
acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002
Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:
Optional presentation (omits bracketed phrase that qualifies the
journal title abbreviation):
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA
acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug
12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:
Article published on the Internet ahead of the print version:
See # 18.
Optional formats used by NLM in MEDLINE/PubMed:
Article with document number in place of traditional pagination:
Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR. Videos in clinical medicine.
Blood-pressure measurement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6.
PubMed PMID: 19179309.
Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK.
Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug
reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan
7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2615549.
Article with unique publisher item identifier (pii) in place of
traditional pagination or DOI:
Tegnell A, Dillner J, Andrae B. Introduction of human papillomavirus
(HPV) vaccination in Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2009 Feb 12;14(6). pii:
19119. PubMed PMID: 19215721.
on the Internet [Edited
12 May 2009]
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer
[Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul
9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/.
12 May 2009]
Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online
Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9].
Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.
of a homepage/Web site [Edited
12 May 2009]
American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association;
c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of
Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:
on the Internet [Edited
12 May 2009]
Who's Certified [Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of
Medical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8].
Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp
Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation
(MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of
Medicine (US); c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12].
of a database on the Internet [Edited
12 May 2009]
MeSH Browser [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine
(US); 2002 - . Meta-analysis [cited 2008 Jul 24]; [about
2 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2008/MB_cgi?mode=&index=16408&view=concept MeSH
Unique ID: D017418.
42. Blogs [Added
12 May 2009]
Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew
Holt. 2003 Oct - [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from:
KidneyNotes.com [Internet]. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 -
[cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.
Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG: WSJ's blog on health and the
business of health [Internet]. Hensley S, editor. New York: Dow
Jones & Company, Inc. c2007 - [cited 2009 Feb 13].
Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/.
Contribution to a blog:
Mantone J. Head trauma haunts many, researchers say. 2008 Jan 29
[cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG
[Internet]. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2008 -
. [about 1 screen]. Available from:http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2008/01/29/head-trauma-haunts-many-researchers-say/.
Campbell A. Diabetes and alcohol: do the two mix? (Part 2). 2008 Jan
28 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Diabetes Self-Management Blog
[Internet]. New York: Diabetes Self-Management. [2006 Aug 14] -
. 2 p. Available from:http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/Amy_Campbell/Diabetes_and_Alcohol_Do_the_Two_Mix_Part_2
Reider J. Docnotes: Health, Technology, Family Medicine and other
observations [Internet]. [place unknown]: Jacob Reider. 1999 -
. CRP again ...; 2004 Apr 2 [cited 2009 Feb 13]; [about 1 screen].
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors site
Preparing a Manuscript for
Submission to a Medical Journal
Journal submissions should follow standard
and be submitted to our email address ICHNFM @ gmail as linked
above. Additional details follow, sourced 2014Feb from:
1. General Principles
The text of articles reporting original
research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and
Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an
arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of
scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these
sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles,
such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case
reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured
or unstructured formats.
Electronic formats have created
opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information,
cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic
versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted
and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.
2. Reporting Guidelines
guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples
for randomized trials,
STROBE for observational
for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and
for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask
authors to follow these guidelines because they help authors
describe the study in enough detail for it to be evaluated by
editors, reviewers, readers, and other researchers evaluating the
medical literature. Authors of review manuscripts are encouraged to
describe the methods used for locating, select¬ing, extracting, and
synthesizing data; this is mandatory for systematic reviews. Good
sources for reporting guidelines are the
and the NLM’s
Research Reporting Guidelines and
3. Manuscript Sections
The following are general requirements for
reporting within sections of all study designs and manuscript
a. Title Page
General information about an article and
its authors is presented on a manuscript title page and usually
includes the article title, author information, any disclaimers,
sources of support, word count, and sometimes the number of tables
title. The title provides a
distilled description of the complete article and should include
information that, along with the Abstract, will make electronic
retrieval of the article sensitive and specific. Reporting
guidelines recommend and some journals require that information
about the study design be a part of the title (particularly
important for randomized trials and systematic reviews and
meta-analyses). Some journals require a short title, usually no more
than 40 characters (including letters and spaces) on the title page
or as a separate entry in an electronic submission system.
Electronic submission systems may restrict the number of characters
in the title.
information: Each author’s
highest academic degrees should be listed, although some journals do
not publish these. The name of the department(s) and institution(s)
or organizations where the work should be attributed should be
specified. Most electronic submission systems require that authors
provide full contact information, including land mail and e-mail
addresses, but the title page should list the corresponding authors’
telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address.
An example of a disclaimer is an author’s statement that the views
expressed in the submitted article are his or her own and not an
official position of the institution or funder.
support. These include
grants, equipment, drugs, and/or other support that facilitated
conduct of the work described in the article or the writing of the
A word count for the paper’s text, excluding its abstract,
acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references, allows
editors and reviewers to assess whether the information contained in
the paper warrants the paper’s length, and whether the submitted
manuscript fits within the journal’s formats and word limits. A
separate word count for the Abstract is useful for the same reason.
figures and tables. Some
submission systems require specification of the number of Figures
and Tables before uploading the relevant files. These numbers allow
editorial staff and reviewers to confirm that all figures and tables
were actually included with the manuscript and, because Tables and
Figures occupy space, to assess if the information provided by the
figures and tables warrants the paper’s length and if the manuscript
fits within the journal’s space limits.
Conflict of interest information for each author needs to be part of
the manuscript; each journal should develop standards with regard to
the form the information should take and where it will be posted.
The ICMJE has developed a uniform
conflict of interest disclosure form
for use by ICMJE member journals and the ICMJE encourages other
journals to adopt it. Despite availability of the form, editors may
require conflict of interest declarations on the manuscript title
page to save the work of collecting forms from each author prior to
making an editorial decision or to save reviewers and readers the
work of reading each author’s form.
research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses require structured
abstracts. The abstract should provide the context or background for
the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures
(selection of study participants, settings, measurements, analytical
methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their
statistical and clinical significance, if possible), and principal
conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the
study or observations, note important limitations, and not
overinterpret findings. Clinical trial abstracts should include
items that the CONSORT group has identified as
Funding sources should be listed separately after the Abstract to
facilitate proper display and indexing for search retrieval by
Because abstracts are the only substantive
portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the
only portion many readers read, authors need to ensure that they
accurately reflect the content of the article. Unfortunately,
information in abstracts often differs from that in the text.
Authors and editors should work in the process of revision and
review to ensure that information is consistent in both places. The
format required for structured abstracts differs from journal to
journal, and some journals use more than one format; authors need to
prepare their abstracts in the format specified by the journal they
The ICMJE recommends that journals publish
the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract.
The ICMJE also recommends that, when a registration number is
available, authors list that number the first time they use a trial
acronym to refer to the trial they are reporting or to other trials
that they mention in the manuscript.
Provide a context or background for the
study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance).
State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis
tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent
references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work
The guiding principle of the Methods
section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a
particular way. The section should include only information that was
available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being
written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the
i. Selection and Description of
Clearly describe the selection of
observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or
patients, in¬cluding controls), including eligibility and exclusion
criteria and a description of the source population. Because the
relevance of such variables as age, sex, or ethnicity is not always
known at the time of study design, researchers should aim for
inclusion of representative populations into all study types and at
a minimum provide descriptive data for these and other relevant
demographic variables. If the study was done involving an exclusive
population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why,
except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer).” Authors should
define how they measured race or ethnicity and justify their
ii. Technical Information
Specify the study’s main and secondary
objectives–usually identified as primary and secondary outcomes.
Identify methods, equipment (give the manufacturer’s name and
address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to
allow others to reproduce the results. Give references to
established methods, including statistical methods (see below);
provide references and brief descrip¬tions for methods that have
been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially
modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate
their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used,
including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.
Identify appropriate scientific names and gene names.
Describe statistical methods with enough
detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original
data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the
reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them
with appropriate indicators of mea¬surement error or uncertainty
(such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical
hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important
information about effect size and precision of estimates. References
for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to
standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical
terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the statistical
software package(s) and versions used. Distinguish prespecified from
exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses.
Present your results in logical sequence in
the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important
findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures
in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important
observations. Provide data on all primary and secondary outcomes
identified in the Methods Section. Extra or supplementary materials
and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will
be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they
can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal.
Give numeric results not only as
derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute
numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the
statistical significance attached to them, if any. Restrict tables
and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and
to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to ta¬bles
with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid
nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random”
(which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,”
“correlations,” and “sample.”
Separate reporting of data by demographic
variables, such as age and sex, facilitate pooling of data for
subgroups across studies and should be routine, unless there are
compelling reasons not to stratify reporting, which should be
Emphasize the new and important aspects of
the study and the conclusions that follow from them in the context
of the totality of the best available evidence. Do not repeat in
detail data or other information given in other parts of the
manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results section. For
experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by
briefly summarizing the main findings, then explore possible
mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast
the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of
the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future
research and for clinical practice.
Link the conclusions with the goals of the
study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not
adequately supported by the data. In particular, distinguish between
clinical and statistical significance, and avoid making statements
on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the
appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or
alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses
when war¬ranted, but label them clearly.
i. General Considerations Related to
Authors should provide direct references to
original research sources whenever possible. Although references to
review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body
of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work
accurately. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to
original work on a topic can use excessive space. Fewer references
to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists,
particularly since references can now be added to the electronic
version of published papers, and since electronic literature
searching allows readers to retrieve published literature
Do not use conference abstracts as
references: they can be cited in the text, in parentheses, but not
as page footnotes. References to papers accepted but not yet
published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming.”
Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be
cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written
permission from the source.
Avoid citing a “personal communication”
unless it provides essential information not available from a public
source, in which case the name of the person and date of
communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For
scientific articles, obtain written permission and confirmation of
accuracy from the source of a personal communication.
Some but not all
journals check the accuracy of all reference citations; thus,
citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of
articles. To minimize such errors, references should be verified
using either an electronic bibliographic source, such as PubMed, or
print copies from original sources. Authors are responsible for
checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except
in the context of referring to the retraction. For articles
published in journals indexed in MEDLINE, the ICMJE considers PubMed
the authoritative source for information about retractions. Authors
can identify retracted articles in MEDLINE by searching PubMed for
"Retracted pub¬lication [pt]", where the term "pt" in square
brackets stands for publication type, or by going directly to the
list of retracted publications.
References should be numbered consecutively
in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify
references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in
only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance
with the sequence established by the first identification in the
text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals
should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals).
Journals vary on whether they ask authors to cite electronic
references within parentheses in the text or in numbered references
following the text. Authors should consult with the journal to which
they plan to submit their work.
ii. Reference Style and Format
should follow the standards summarized in the NLM’s
International Committee of Medical
Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting,
Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals:
Sample References webpage and
detailed in the NLM’s
Citing Medicine, 2nd edition.
These resources are regularly updated as new media develop, and
currently include guidance for print documents; unpublished
material; audio and visual media; material on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk;
and material on the Internet.
Tables capture information concisely and
display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired
level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than
text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text.
Prepare tables according to the specific
journal’s requirements; to avoid errors it is best if tables can be
directly imported into the journal’s publication software. Number
tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the
text and supply a title for each. Titles in tables should be short
but self-explanatory, containing information that allows readers to
understand the table’s content without having to go back to the
text. Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
Give each column a short or an abbreviated
heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not
in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes,
and use symbols to explain information if needed. Symbols may vary
from journal to journal (alphabet letter or such symbols as *, †, ‡,
§), so check each journal’s instructions for authors for required
practice. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as
standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
If you use data from another published or
unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source
Additional tables containing backup data
too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication
in the electronic version of the journal, deposited with an archival
service, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An
appropriate statement should be added to the text to inform readers
that this additional information is available and where it is
located. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper so that
they will be available to the peer reviewers.
i. Illustrations (Figures)
Digital images of manuscript illustrations
should be submitted in a suitable format for print publication. Most
submission systems have detailed instructions on the quality of
images and check them after manuscript upload. For print
submissions, figures should be either professionally drawn and
photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints.
For X-ray films, scans, and other
diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or
photomicrographs, send high-resolution photographic image files.
Since blots are used as primary evidence in many scientific
articles, editors may require deposition of the original photographs
of blots on the journal’s website.
Although some journals redraw figures, many
do not. Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should therefore be
clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible
when the figure is reduced for publication. Figures should be made
as self-explanatory as possible, since many will be used directly in
slide presentations. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the
legends—not on the illustrations themselves.
Photomicrographs should have internal scale
markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should
contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and
identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
Figures should be numbered consecutively
according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If
a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original
source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to
reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or
publisher except for documents in the public domain.
In the manuscript, legends for
illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals
corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers,
or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify
and explain each one clearly in the legend.
j. Units of Measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight, and
volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or
liter) or their decimal multiples.
Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius.
Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury, unless other
units are specifically required by the journal.
Journals vary in the units they use for
reporting hematologic, clinical chemistry, and other measurements.
Authors must consult the Information for Authors of the particular
journal and should report laboratory information in both local and
International System of Units (SI).
Editors may request that authors add
alternative or non-SI units, since SI units are not universally
used. Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass
units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where
k. Abbreviations and Symbols
Use only standard abbreviations; use of
nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid
abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out
abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be
used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of
International Conference/College of Human
Nutrition and Functional Medicine