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ARCHIVED: Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community

Citation and links

Reason for archive

  • Vaccination has been controversial since its introduction due to concerns about adverse effects and human rights violations. The international media and various government agencies are influenced by the money of vaccine-producing drug companies, and as such articles that actually study vaccines or demonstrate adverse effects are quite commonly disappeared soon after publication. Thus, to help maintain the scientific record, this open-access article has been archived here in PDF form

Notable findings of this study

  • Increased mortality among vaccine recipients: "Among 3–5-month-old children, having received DTP (± OPV) was associated with a mortality hazard ratio (HR) of 5.00 (95% CI 1.53–16.3) compared with not-yet-DTP-vaccinated children. Differences in background factors did not explain the effect. The negative effect was particularly strong for children who had received DTP-only and no OPV (HR = 10.0 (2.61–38.6)). All-cause infant mortality after 3 months of age increased after the introduction of these vaccines (HR = 2.12 (1.07–4.19))."

  • Clear and consistent evidence of harm: "DTP vaccinations were associated with increased infant mortality even though there was no vaccine-induced herd immunity. When unvaccinated controls were normal children who had not yet been eligible for vaccination, mortality was 5 times higher for DTP-vaccinated children. Co-administration of OPV with DTP may have reduced the negative effects of DTP."

  • Conclusions: "DTP was associated with 5-fold higher mortality than being unvaccinated. No prospective study has shown beneficial survival effects of DTP. Unfortunately, DTP is the most widely used vaccine, and the proportion who receives DTP3 is used globally as an indicator of the performance of national vaccination programs. It should be of concern that the effect of routine vaccinations on all-cause mortality was not tested in randomized trials. All currently available evidence suggests that DTP vaccine may kill more children from other causes than it saves from diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis. Though a vaccine protects children against the target disease it may simultaneously increase susceptibility to unrelated infections."

Practice and policy implications

  • Given the very clear evidence of harm, 1) such vaccination campaigns should be halted, 2) patient autonomy and the ability to refuse vaccine without political and financial penalty should be respected and protected. 

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